Host specificity encompasses the range and diversity of host species that a parasite is capable of infecting and is considered a crucial measure of a parasite’s potential to shift hosts and trigger disease emergence.
What does host-specific mean in biology?
capable of living solely on or in one species of host, as a parasite that infests only chickens.
How is host specificity determined?
Intraspecific host specificity in plants is often determined by resistance or R genes that recognizespecificpathogenproteinsorepitopes[2,3],where- as in animals and humans, genetic differences in immune determinants can lead to differential susceptibilities be- tween populations [4–6].
What is a host-specific pest?
Host-specific: A parasite, parasitoid, or pathogen that, at least in the area specified, is monophagous. 6. Host-specificity: The level of specificity of a parasite, parasitoid, or pathogen to its host. The levels are classified as monophagous, stenophagous, oligophagous, and polyphagous.
How many types of host specificity are there?
These different aspects of host specificity are known as structural specificity, phylogenetic specificity and geographical specificity, respectively , and they may vary markedly among the different life stages of a tick species [13, 23].
What is host in biology class 9?
The biological definition of a host is an organism that harbors another organism inside or near their body in a symbiotic relationship.
What are examples of host?
The definition of host is someone or something that entertains others or invites others in, or the wafer used in Christian communion. An example of host is someone who gives a party. An example of host is a dog that has fleas. An example of host is the cracker used during communion.
Why do parasites have high host specificity?
Host specificity is influenced by the behavior and ecology of both parasite and host. Where parasites are active, vagile and coupled with hosts whose behavior and ecology brings the parasite into contact with many potential hosts, the likelihood of host switching is increased, usually leading to lowered specificity.
What does a high degree of host specificity imply?
The high degree of host specificity and the ability to cause dramatic declines in host populations make tetraviruses excellent candidates for use as microbial control agents of insect pests.
What parasite is host specific?
In simple terms, host specificity can be defined as the number and identity of host species that are used by a parasite population. Parasites that are highly host-specific will occur in a single host species, whereas generalist parasites will be dispersed unequally among individual hosts from several different species.
What is the host range of a pathogen?
Host range, defined as the number of host species used by a pathogen, is a simple metric that is central to understanding pathogen epidemiology and pathogenicity. Host range conditions the transmission dynamics and survival of pathogens and is predicted to be a major factor in their evolution.
What is the relationship between parasite and host?
A parasitic relationship is one in which one organism, the parasite, lives off of another organism, the host, harming it and possibly causing death. The parasite lives on or in the body of the host.
What is meant by narrow host range?
For the purpose of this review, we define narrow-host-range phages as those that can complete their life cycle in only one host (Figure 2A), and broad-host-range phages as those that can complete their life cycle in multiple taxonomically distinct hosts.
Are ticks host specific?
At the scale of the global geographic distribution of a species, ticks tend to be host generalists. Most species have large repertoires of potential host species and can exploit phylogenetically diverse host species that share the same ecological habitats.
What is a host in medical terms?
Host: 1. The organism from which a parasite obtains its nutrition and/or shelter. 2. An organism or cell culture in which a virus can replicate itself. 3.
What is primary host and secondary host?
A primary host or definitive host is a host in which the parasite reaches maturity and, in most cases, reproduces sexually. A secondary host or intermediate host is a host that harbors the parasite only for a short transition period during one or more of its developmental stages.