It was discovered that phages are obligate intracellular parasites that require a suitable bacterial host cell to multiply and proliferate . Infection begins through phage recognition of and adsorption to a host cell receptor via phage receptor binding proteins (RBP).
How do bacteriophages attach to host cells?
To infect bacteria, most bacteriophages employ a ‘tail’ that stabs and pierces the bacterium’s membrane to allow the virus’s genetic material to pass through. The most sophisticated tails consist of a contractile sheath surrounding a tube akin to a stretched coil spring at the nanoscale.
What do bacteriophages use for attachment?
Pili are proteic retractile filaments up to 20 micrometer long that protrude from gram-negative bacteria. Some RNA and DNA bacteriophages use pili to attach to the host cell. There are many types of pili and each bacterial virus binds specifically to a precise type.
How does a bacteriophage attach to a host cell quizlet?
Phage attaches to the host cell and injects DNA into the host. Phage DNA circularizes and enters the lytic cycle or the lysogenic cycle. In theLytic cycle phage DNA circularizes and enters the lytic cycle. New phage DNA and proteins are synthesized and assembled into virions.
What structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to the host cell receptors?
The tail of the bacteriophage includes the tail sheath, base plate and tail fibers, which are made of different proteins. The long tail fibers are used by the bacteriophage to attach itself to the bacterium and the virus then inserts its genetic material inside of the host cell to begin the replication process.
Which part of the attached bacteriophage enters through the host cell wall?
the tail acts as a “hypodermic needle”, injecting the phage DNA into the cell. the protein fibers digest a hole in the cell wall. the bacterial receptor molecules open a hole through the cell wall. the tail acts as a “hypodermic needle”, injecting the phage DNA into the cell.
What is bacteriophage How does it reproduce completely within the host cell?
Life cycles of bacteriophages
Lytic phages take over the machinery of the cell to make phage components. They then destroy, or lyse, the cell, releasing new phage particles. Lysogenic phages incorporate their nucleic acid into the chromosome of the host cell and replicate with it as a unit without destroying the cell.
What is phage host interaction?
Phages interact and infect specific bacteria while not affecting other bacteria or cell lines of other organisms. Due to the specificity of these phage-host interactions, the relationship between phages and their host cells has been the topic of much research.
When a virus attaches to a host What does it inject into the host?
During attachment and penetration, the virus attaches itself to a host cell and injects its genetic material into it. During uncoating, replication, and assembly, the viral DNA or RNA incorporates itself into the host cell’s genetic material and induces it to replicate the viral genome.
What part of the bacteriophage gets injected into a bacterial cell?
Which part of the bacteriophage was injected into the bacterial cell? The bacteriophage injects its double-stranded Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) genome into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. Notably, the tail contains a hollow core through which the injection of DNA takes place into the host cell.
What part of the bacteriophage gets injected?
The phage possesses a genome of linear ds DNA contained within an icosahedral head. The tail consists of a hollow core through which the DNA is injected into the host cell.
What does a bacteriophage inject into a bacterial cell?
A phage attaches to a bacterium and injects its DNA into the bacterial cell.
What is a bacteriophage that reproduces only by the lytic cycle?
Virulent phage is a phage that reproduces only by a lytic cycle. Temperate phage is a phage that is capable of reproducing by either the lytic or lysogenic cycle.
Which structure allows a virus to recognize an attached to receptors on the host cell?
A virus attaches to a specific receptor site on the host cell membrane through attachment proteins in the capsid or via glycoproteins embedded in the viral envelope. The specificity of this interaction determines the host—and the cells within the host—that can be infected by a particular virus.
Which step is present in bacteriophage multiplication?
The one-step multiplication curve for a bacteriophage population follows three steps: 1) inoculation, during which the virions attach to host cells; 2) eclipse, during which entry of the viral genome occurs; and 3) burst, when sufficient numbers of new virions are produced and emerge from the host cell.